HCHR 30200/HIST 31902  History of Christian Thought 2  (W. Otten)  This second class in the History of Christian Thought sequence deals with the period from late antiquity until the end of the early Middle Ages, stretching roughly from 450 through 1350. The following authors and themes will be analyzed and discussed: transition from Roman antiquity to the medieval period: Boethius and Cassiodorus; the rise of asceticism in the West: the Rule of St. Benedict and Gregory the Great; connecting East and West: Dionysius the Areopagite and John Scottus Eriugena; monastic and scholastic paragons: Anselm of Canterbury, Peter Abelard; high-medieval monastic developments: Cistercians (Bernard of Clairvaux) and Victorines (Hugh and Richard of St. Victor), beguines (Hadewijch), and mendicants (Bonaventure); and scholastic synthesis and spiritual alternatives: Thomas Aquinas, Marguerite Porete, and Eckhart.

HMRT 30301/HIST 39304  Human Rights: Contemporary Issues  (S. Gzesh)  This interdisciplinary course presents an overview of several major contemporary human-rights problems as a means to explore the use of human-rights norms and mechanisms. The course addresses the roles of states, intergovernmental bodies, national courts, and civil-society actors, including NGOs, victims and their families, and other non-state actors. Topics are likely to include universalism, enforceability of human-rights norms, the prohibition against torture, US exceptionalism, and the rights of women, racial minorities, and noncitizens.

NEHC 30501/ HIST 35704  Islamic History and Society 1: The Rise of Islam and the Caliphate  (F. Donner)  This sequence surveys the main trends in the political history of the Islamic world, with some attention to economic, social, and intellectual history. This course covers the period ca. 600 to 1100, including the rise and spread of Islam, the Islamic empire under the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphs, and the emergence of regional Islamic states from Afghanistan and eastern Iran to North Africa and Spain. The sequence meets the general eduation requirement in civilization studies.

NEHC 30601/HIST 35610  Islamic Thought and Literature I: Origins of Islamic Civilization  This sequence explores the thought and literature of the Islamic world from the coming of Islam in the seventh century CE through the development and spread of its civilization in the medieval period and into the modern world. Including historical framework to establish chronology and geography, the course focuses on key aspects of Islamic intellectual history: scripture, law, theology, philosophy, literature, mysticism, political thought, historical writing, and archaeology. In addition to lectures and secondary background readings, students read and discuss samples of key primary texts, with a view to exploring Islamic civilization in the direct voices of the people who participated in creating it. This course covers the period from circa 600 to 950, concentrating on the career of the Prophet Muhammad, Qur‘an and Hadith, the Caliphate, the development of Islamic legal, theological, philosophical, and mystical discourses, sectarian movements, and Arabic literature. All readings are in English translation. No prior background in the subject is required.

NEHC 30605/HIST 36005  Colloquium: Sources for the Study of Islamic History  (J. Woods)  This course is designed to acquaint the student with the basic problems and concepts as well as the sources and methodology for the study of premodern Islamic history. Sources will be read in English translation and the tools acquired will be applied to specific research projects to be submitted as term papers.

NEHC 30631/HIST 58001  Approaches to the Study of the Middle East  (P. Walker)  The course introduces beginning graduate students to the range of basic resources, methods, and analytical tools that must be mastered by those engaging in the study of the Islamic Middle East. As such, it covers the period from the seventh century to the present and is focused on developing professional skills necessary for successful completion of a master's or doctoral program.

NEHC 30852/HIST 58302  The Ottoman World in the Age of Suleyman the Magnificent  (C. Fleischer)  The course focuses on the formation of the Ottoman polity as an imperial entity following the conquest of Constantinople in 1453 and up to the end of the sixteenth century. Taking as its thematic center point the ideological, social, cultural, and administrative changes introduced by Sultan Suleyman (1520–1566), the seminar also provides a survey of the institutions of his most extensive of early modern Muslim empires. Themes of particular significance are the changing relationship of religion and state, the development of imperial culture, the rule of law, rivalry with contemporary Christian and Muslim powers, and the transition from universal to regional empire. Reading knowledge of at least one European language recommended.

NEHC 30891/HIST 35707  Introduction to the Ottoman Press  (A. H. Shissler)  This course introduces students to the historical context and specific characteristics of the mass printed press (newspapers, cultural and political journals, etc.) in the Ottoman Empire in the nineteenth century. We will investigate issues such as content, censorship, production, readership, and distribution through secondary reading and the examination of period publications.

CHSS 32000/HIST 56800  Colloquium: Introduction to Science Studies  (A. Johns & K. Knorr-Cetina)  This course explores the interdisciplinary study of science as an enterprise. During the twentieth century, sociologists, historians, philosophers, and anthropologists all raised interesting and consequential questions about the sciences. Taken together their various approaches came to constitute a field, "science studies." The course provides an introduction to this field. Students will not only investigate how the field coalesced and why, but will also apply science-studies perspectives in a fieldwork project focused on a science or science-policy setting. Among the topics we may examine are the sociology of scientific knowledge and its applications, actor-network theories of science, constructivism and the history of science, images of normal and revolutionary science, accounts of research in the commercial university, and the examined links between science and policy.

PHIL 32000/HIST 35109  Introduction to the Philosophy of Science  (T. Pashby)  We will begin by trying to explicate the manner in which science is a rational response to observational facts. This will involve a discussion of inductivism, Popper’s deductivism, Lakatos and Kuhn. After this, we will briefly survey some other important topics in the philosophy of science, including underdetermination, theories of evidence, Bayesianism, the problem of induction, explanation, and laws of nature.

GREK 32400/HIST 30403  Greek Comedy: Aristophanes  (E. Austin)  We will read in Greek Aristophanes's Clouds, considering its portrait of Socrates against the backdrop of fifth-century Athens and Plato's portrait of him. Our inquiry will include larger questions of the relationship between poetry and philosophy and of the philosopher to the city. Reading will include translation as well as secondary readings.

HIST 33006  Looting in Modern European History (A. Goff)  At the end of the eighteenth century Europeans recognized the seizure of enemy property to be a time honored practice of warfare and subjugation. At the same time, however, new ideas about human rights, cultural heritage, and international law began to reshape the place of looting in the exercise of power. This course will take up the history of looting in European cultural and political life from the late eighteenth through the twentieth centuries as a tool of nationalism, imperialism, totalitarianism, and scholarship. How was looting defined, who defined it, and what kinds of ethical and legal codes governed its use? How was the seizure of personal property, cultural artifacts, and sacred objects legitimized by its practitioners and experienced by its victims? In what ways did looting change the meaning of objects and why? How do we understand looting in relationship to other forms of violence and destruction in the modern period? While the focus of the course will be on Europe, we will necessarily be concerned with a global frame as we follow cases of looting in colonial contexts, through migration, exploration, and during war. Course materials will including primary texts, images, objects, and historical accounts. Students will be required to write a final historiographical essay.

SCTH 33401/HIST 49403  Conceptual Foundations of the Modern State  (Q. Skinner)  The course will examine the evolution of Western thinking about the modern concept of the state. The focus will be on Renaissance theories (Niccolò Machiavelli, Thomas More), theories of absolute sovereignty (especially Thomas Hobbes), theories about "free states" (James Harrington, John Locke), and republican theories from the era of the Enlightenment.

HIST 34500  Reading Qing Documents  (G. Alitto)  Reading and discussion of nineteenth- and early twentieth-century historical political documents, including such forms as memorials, decrees, local gazetteers, diplomatic communications, essays, and the like.

LACS 34600/HIST 36101  Introduction to Latin American Civilization 1  (E. Kourí)  Taking these courses in sequence is not required. This sequence meets the general education requirement in civilization studies. This sequence is offered every year. This course introduces the history and cultures of Latin America (e.g., Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean Islands). The first quarter examines the origins of civilizations in Latin America with a focus on the political, social, and cultural features of the major pre-Columbian civilizations of the Maya, Inca, and Aztec. The quarter concludes with an analysis of the Spanish and Portuguese conquest and the construction of colonial societies in Latin America.

HIST 34611  Economic Change in China, circa 1800–2000  (K. Pomeranz)  An overview of Chinese economic development since the end of the eighteenth century, with attention to its social, political, and environmental ramifications. Topics in the first part of the course include the Qing property-rights system and its implications for rural society; merchant organization, internal trade, migration, and the imperial political economy, this section of the course concludes with explanations of the economic and other crises that caused late-nineteenth and early twentieth century China to be called the "land of famine." Part two covers changes in China's relationship to the outside world, the beginnings of industrialization, and the complex patterns of regional growth and stagnation up through the victory of the Communist Party in 1949. Part three looks at both Maoist (1949–1976) and post-Maoist development, emphasizing the economic consequences of institutional changes, industrialization and urbanization (especially since 1978), and the evolving tensions with a so-called "socialist market economy." Mostly lecture, with some class time for discussions, plus an online discussion board; midterm, final, and two short papers (5–7-pages each).

HIST 34905  Darwin's On the Origin of Species and The Descent of Man  (R. Richards)  This lecture-discussion class will focus on a close reading of Darwin's two classic texts. An initial class or two will explore the state of biology prior to Darwin's Beagle voyage, and then consider the development of his theories before 1859. Then we will turn to his two books. Among the topics of central concern will be the logical, epistemological, and rhetorical status of Darwin's several theories, especially his evolutionary ethics; the religious foundations of his ideas and the religious reaction to them; and the social-political consequences of his accomplishment. The year 2009 was the two hundredth anniversary of Darwin's birth and the one hundred fiftieth of the publication of On the Origin of Species.

HIST 35421  Censorship from the Inquisition to the Present  (S. McManus & A. Palmer)  Collaborative research seminar on the history of censorship and information control, with a focus on the history of books and information technologies. The class will meet in Special Collections, and students will work with the professor to prepare an exhibit, The History of Censorship, to be held in the Special Collections exhibit space in the spring. Students will work with rare books and archival materials, design exhibit cases, write exhibit labels, and contribute to the exhibit catalog. Half the course will focus on censorship in early modern Europe, including the Inquisition, the spread of the printing press, and clandestine literature in the Renaissance and Enlightenment. Special focus on the effects of censorship on classical literature, both newly rediscovered works like Lucretius and lost books of Plato, and authors like Pliny the Elder and Seneca who had been available in the Middle Ages but became newly controversial in the Renaissance. The other half of the course will look at modern and contemporary censorship issues, from wartime censorship, to the censorship of comic books, to digital-rights management, to free speech on our own campus. Students may choose whether to focus their own research and exhibit cases on classical, early modern, modern, or contemporary censorship.

REES 36064/HIST 33707  Revolution  R. Bird & S. Fitzpatrick  Revolution primarily denotes radical political change, but this definition is both too narrow and too broad. Too broad, because since the late eighteenth century revolution has been associated specifically with an emancipatory politics, from American democracy to Soviet communism. Too narrow, because revolutionary political change is always accompanied by change in other spheres, from philosophy to everyday life. We investigate the history of revolution from 1776 to the present, with a particular focus on the Bolshevik revolution of 1917, in order to ascertain how social revolutions have been constituted, conducted, and enshrined in political and cultural institutions. We also ask what the conditions and prospects of revolution are today. Readings will be drawn from a variety of fields, from philosophy to social history. Most readings will be primary documents, from Rousseau and Marx to Bill Ayers, but will also include major statements in the historiography of revolution.

GEOG 36100/HIST 38900  Roots of the Modern American City  (M. Conzen)  This course traces the economic, social, and physical development of the city in North America from pre-European times to the mid-twentieth century. We emphasize evolving regional urban systems, the changing spatial organization of people and land use in urban areas, and the developing distinctiveness of American urban landscapes. All-day Illinois field trip required.

HIST 36106  Tropical Commodities in Latin America  (E. Kourí)  This colloquium explores selected aspects of the social, economic, and cultural history of tropical export commodities from Latin America, e.g., coffee, bananas, sugar, tobacco, henequen, rubber, vanilla, and cocaine. Topics include land, labor, capital, markets, transport, geopolitics, power, taste, and consumption.

HIST 36513  The Migrant City: Migration, Urbanization, and the Making of the Americas in the Twentieth Century  (E. de Antuñano Villarreal, Von Holst Prize Lecturer)  This course investigates cities in the Americas as "migrant cities," that is, the outcomes of the movement of millions of peoples across regions, borders, and oceans. We will consider three broad migratory movements: European migrations to cities such as New York and Buenos Aires between 1870 and 1930; internal migrations of people of African or indigenous descent from the US South to northern cities and from the Brazilian northeast to its southern industrial cities between 1930 and 1970; and, finally, the South-North migration from Mexico and Central America to the United States between 1970 and the present. By comparing these migratory movements, we will explore how migration has shaped twentieth-century megacities, asking, among other questions: Is the United States "melting pot" truly exceptional or has the whole continent been effected by movements of people across regions and borders? Have cities represented spaces of opportunity and liberation for migrants, or rather, are they sites where inequality and oppression have simply adopted a different form? What is the relationship between urban migration and twentieth-century understandings of race and culture? Is the presence of Latinos and Mexicans in US cities a new phenomenon or and old one? Does it represent a threat, an opportunity, or more of the same?

SALC 37701/HIST 36602  Mughal India: Tradition and Transition  (M. Alam)  The focus of this course is on the period of Mughal rule during the late sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries, especially on selected issues that have been at the center of historiographical debate in the past decades. This course is directed towards graduate students; undergraduates may enroll with the permission of the instructor.

HIST 39519  Histories of Racial Capitalism  (D. Jenkins)  This course takes as its starting point the insistence that the movement, settlement, and hierarchical arrangements of people of African descent is inseparable from regimes of capital accumulation. It builds on the concept of "racial capitalism," which rejects treatments of race as external to a purely economic project and counters the idea that racism is an externality, cultural overflow, or aberration from the so-called real workings of capitalism. With a focus on the African diaspora, this course will cover topics such as racial slavery, labor in Jamaica, banking in the Caribbean, black capitalism in Miami, the under development of Africa, mass incarceration, and the contemporary demand for racial reparations.

TURK 40589/HIST 58301  Colloquium: Advanced Ottoman Historical Texts  (C. Fleischer)  Based on selected readings from major Ottoman chronicles from the fifteenth to the seventeenth centuries, the course provides an introduction to the use of primary narrative materials and an overview of the development and range of Ottoman historical writing. Knowledge of modern and Ottoman Turkish required.

CDIN 41717/HIST 51300  The Mediterranean Sea in Antiquity: Imperial Connections  (C. Kearns & J. Osborne)  The Mediterranean possesses a middling geopolitical identity, situated as it is between continental Europe, the Aegean, the Middle East, and North Africa. And despite our diachronic investment in recognizing the Mediterranean's grand narrative as a locus of cultural connectivity, its long-term histories of interregional dynamics remain difficult to approach holistically. This concern is especially salient when it comes to the study of ancient empires. This seminar has two closely related objectives. First, we tackle the most ambitious pieces of scholarship on Mediterranean history to evaluate how various disciplines have sought to analyze and to bound the Mediterranean Sea as a cartographic whole. In the process, we gain an appreciation not only for the methodological and interpretive scales involved in such an undertaking, but for the various disciplinary strategies the Mediterranean's diverse histories have inspired. Second, we interrogate one sociopolitical structure—the empire—and question how the Mediterranean encouraged and challenged imperialism as a recurring formation that worked to maintain sovereignty across broad geographical expanses. In doing so, we explore the variegated processes of cultural connectivity that have characterized the ancient Mediterranean from east to west.

HIST 42105  Cities and Towns in the Middle Ages  (R. Fulton Brown)  It is true: most people in medieval Europe did not live in cities or towns. And yet, cities lay at the heart of the medieval world. Christians looked to become citizens of the heavenly Jerusalem, emperors and kings modeled their courts on Rome, scholars traveled to study in Paris, merchants and artisans set up shop in Venice and Bruges, Franciscans and Dominicans preached to the people in the market squares. This course explores the role of the city in medieval life as both idea and environment. Themes include the construction of cities, the occupations of the city, its political, economic, legal, educational, and administrative importance, life in the city with special emphasis on students, Jews, entertainers, and women, the virtues and aesthetics of the city, the city in warfare, and the change in the importance of cities and towns from the sack of Rome in AD 410 to the rise of the Hansa and the Italian city-states by the later fourteenth century.

HCHR 42999/HIST 62208  The Religious Thought of Ralph Waldo Emerson and William James  (W. Otten)  This seminar focuses on late nineteenth-century American religious thought, centering on Ralph Waldo Emerson and William James, to see how their thought can be used productively today in light of contemporary constructive theological pressures. The theme will be on the interplay of nature and human nature, both in Emerson's view of nature, moral perfectionism, and religion and in James's view of religion. The work of Stanley Cavell, on Emerson, and Charles Taylor, on James, among others will help guide our discussions.

HIST 43801  Colloquium: Russia and the World  (F. Hillis)  Interrogating the image of Russia as an inward-looking power that has pursued its own historical path, this seminar will examine Russia's interactions with the outside world in the early modern and modern periods. Topics to be considered include Russian participation in international trade and diplomacy, the role of European and Asian cultures in Russian intellectual life, Russia's role in migration and colonization processes, the status of minorities in the Russian empire and the Soviet Union, and Russia's role in the production of transnational ideologies. This is a reading-intensive seminar taught at the graduate level; it is open to undergraduates with solid knowledge of Russian/Soviet history who have obtained the instructor's permission. Knowledge of Russian is not necessary.

HIST 49502  Colloquium: Colonialism, Globalization, and Postcolonialism  (R. Austen)  This course deal with the relationships between Europe (mainly Britain, France, the Netherlands, and Germany) and tropical Africa, the Caribbean, South Asia, and Indonesia from the fifteenth century to the present. We will examine early modern trading-post and slave-plantation empires, their transformation into modern colonial states with European rulers and indigenous subject populations, and the fate of these territories as "postcolonies" in the late-twentieth- and early twenty-first-century global order. The analytic goal is to integrate politics (the formation of colonial regimes and successor nation-states), economics (the dialectics of colonialism, underdevelopment, and global capitalism), and culture (the construction of European and "Third World" identities via colonialism).

HIST 53502  Coll: History of the Human Sciences, 1700–1900  (P. Cheney & J. Goldstein)  In eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Europe several strands of inquiry into the human world, typically emulating the model of the natural sciences, underwent a process of expansion, methodological clarification, and, in some cases, institutional consolidation. In so doing they evolved into the now familiar disciplines of the modern research university, among them, anthropology, history, philology, sociology, political economy, and psychology. Through the reading of both primary and secondary sources, we will explore the rise of all of these human sciences, paying attention to the social, political, and economic context of their development during the Enlightenment, the decades of political upheaval that began in 1789, and the attempted stabilization after 1815. Following upon Jürgen Habermas's insight that psychology and political economy are the master disciplines of an emergent bourgeois society, we shall place particular emphasis upon the development of these sciences in France and Britain  Primary sources may include Mandeville, Montesquieu, Locke, Condillac, Adam Smith, Condorcet, Malthus, Comte, Renan, Durkheim. While the course readings of the first quarter will focus on France and Britain in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, graduate students taking the course as a two-quarter research seminar may write papers outside those geographical and chronological boundaries.

ENGL 55402/HIST 64101  Enlightenment and Revolution in America  (E. Slauter)  Do books cause revolutions, and if so, how? This colloquium explores the impact of ideas on social realities in the revolutionary era. Primary and secondary readings in law, literature, history, politics, religion, science, and the fine arts help us raise and respond to some of the most important questions of recent criticism and historiography: What did "Enlightenment" mean in a colonial context, and how successfully were universal norms institutionalized in particular settings? Was mass mobilization the result of mass consumption, and if not, what combination of material and ideological forces shaped American independence, the formation of the United States, and the creation of a national identity and culture? Was the "founding period" an age of reason or an age of feeling, a moment of secularization or of increasing religiousity, a time of individual or of collective liberties? How did the transition from monarchy to republic inform new notions of gender and race, and what difference did it make to the lives of ordinary women and men, to the rich and the poor, and to American Indians, to European Americans, and to Africans and African Americans? Contemporaries sometimes imagined that everything had been transformed, but what, and who, was ultimately left behind?

HIST 56705  Colloquium: Modern Korean History 1  (B. Cumings)  By modern, we mean Korea since its "opening" in 1876. We read about one book per week in the autumn. Before each session, one student will write a three- to four-page paper on the reading, with another student commenting on it. In the winter, students present the subject, method, and rationale for a research paper. Papers should be about forty pages and based in primary materials; ideally this means Korean materials, but ability to read scholarly materials in Korean, Japanese, or Chinese is not a requirement for taking the colloquium. Students may also choose a comparative and theoretical approach, examining some problems in modern Korean history in the light of similar problems elsewhere, or through the vision of a body of theory.

HIST 58601  Colloquium: Iran and Central Asia  (J. Woods)  A colloquium on the sources for and the literature on the political, social, economic, technological, and cultural history of Western and Central Asia from 900 to 1750. Specific topics will vary and focus on the Turks and the Islamic world, the Mongol universal empire, the age of Timur and the Turkmens, and the development of the "Gunpowder Empires."

HIST 62505  Colloquium: US Legal History—Sovereignty, Property, Rights  (A. Stanley)  This course explores classic, recent, and theoretical/conceptual works in legal history, as well as selected landmark legal cases. Key themes include sovereignty and democracy, equality and difference, property and power, rights and equity. We will consider how the rule of law is studied in light of major historical transformations—the birth of the Republic, capitalist development, slavery abolition, and the emergence of the welfare state.

HIST 73504  Seminar: History of the Human Sciences 1, 1700–1900  (P. Cheney & J. Goldstein)  In eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Europe several strands of inquiry into the human world, typically emulating the model of the natural sciences, underwent a process of expansion, methodological clarification, and, in some cases, institutional consolidation. In so doing they evolved into the now familiar disciplines of the modern research university, among them, anthropology, history, philology, sociology, political economy, and psychology. Through the reading of both primary and secondary sources, we will explore the rise of all of these human sciences, paying attention to the social, political, and economic context of their development during the Enlightenment, the decades of political upheaval that began in 1789, and the attempted stabilization after 1815. Following upon Jürgen Habermas's insight that psychology and political economy are the master disciplines of an emergent bourgeois society, we shall place particular emphasis upon the development of these sciences in France and Britain  Primary sources may include Mandeville, Montesquieu, Locke, Condillac, Adam Smith, Condorcet, Malthus, Comte, Renan, Durkheim. While the course readings of the first quarter will focus on France and Britain in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, graduate students taking the course as a two-quarter research seminar may write papers outside those geographical and chronological boundaries.

HIST 76003  Seminar: Modern Chinese History 1  (J. Eyferth)  This two-quarter graduate seminar examines the social and cultural history of twentieth-century China from the last decades of the Qing to the death of Mao and the early post-Mao reforms. Topics will include the social, political, and economic transformations from the late-nineteenth to the late-twentieth century, including the rise of modern mass media and mass politics, urban and rural revolutions, the reorganization of everyday life under the Guomindang and Communist regimes, political campaigns under Mao, and the changes taking place after Mao's death. We will pay more attention to changes at the grassroot level of society than to politics at the highest level, even though the latter cannot be entirely ignored. The focus will be on the English-language secondary literature but we will also discuss what published and unpublished sources are available for different periods, how the Chinese archives are structured, and how to read official documents.

HIST 76601  Seminar: Japanese History 1  (J. Ketelaar)  Reading and research in Japanese history, which culminates in a major seminar paper at the end of winter term.

HIST 79301  Seminar: Inequality in Latin American History 1  (B. Fischer)  This course is devoted to the issue of inequality in Latin America’s history and historiography. We will consider the role that inequality has played in shaping Latin American societies; we will also play close attention to the ways in which political and intellectual constructions of inequality have impacted the development of Latin American historiography. Throughout the course, we will pay particular attention to historical methodology. How do historians formulate their questions? How do theory and research inform one another? What constitutes creative and rigorous historical investigation? Issues covered will include colonialism, slavery, citizenship, social movements, and the Latin American manifestations of global inequalities. Non-PhD students by consent of instructor.

HIST 84801  Seminar: Twentieth-Century US History 1  (A. Green)  This seminar will acquaint students with recent trends and development in twentieth-century US historical scholarship. Among the core themes will be assessing the emergence and consequence of state power and function; understanding the "progressive," "liberal," and "conservative" turns in politics; situating the rights revolution; considering the reorientation of society toward consumption and the fashioned self; mapping the scope and intensity of global ambitions, alignments, and authority; reckoning with the relation of American ascendency with war and empire. This quarter, in addition to introducing students to key works addressing these and other questions, will also embark upon the crafting of research proposals for required seminar papers, to be completed immediately after winter quarter in the second half of this course.

HIST 89000  Sem: Race in the Twentieth-Century Atlantic World 1  (L. Auslander & T. Holt)  This seminar explores the "work" that race does on both sides of the Atlantic, focusing on the period from the turn of the twentieth century to the present.  Topics covered will include national variations in how "race" is defined and invoked, including policies on the naming, gathering, and use of racial statistics; the changing uses of race in advertising and popular culture; the transatlantic impact of military service during World War I and II; how race figures in the politics and practices of biological reproduction and adoption; presentations of race in children's books, toys, and films; and how sports and the media shape and are shaped by racial ideologies. We will explore these topics as relatively autonomous developments within the nation-states composing the Atlantic world (with a particular focus on the United States, France, and Germany), but also note the transfers, connections, and influences across that body of water.  Comparative references will be made to Great Britain, the Caribbean, and Brazil where most pertinent.